Since the Reformation in 1560, Scotland's national church had been Presbyterian. John Knox and his associates had completed the work of changing Scotland from Roman Catholicism to Protestantism. The Scots felt that their pure religion of Biblical worship and doctrine along with their liberty which had cost so much was worth fighting for.
The struggle for religious and civil liberties during the 1600's was not with Romanism, but with the Episcopalians of England. The British monarchy, which held both religious and civil authority tried to force its prayer book and church government of archbishops, bishops, deans and church laws upon the people of Scotland. When King Charles I and his successors endeavored to force the Scots to conform, is when the conflict became severe and even bloody. For over fifty years the Scots fought a long and bitter fight until 1688 when they succeeded in reestablishing Presbyterianism in Scotland.